Industrial plants, hospitals, data centers and, in fact, every type of facility or campus, can’t afford any amount of downtime due to electrical system problems. Downtime also negatively impacts customer satisfaction and the bottom line. Furthermore, the IEC60364 standard makes selectivity mandatory for installations supplying safety services, while local regulations may also require it for other specific applications.
Electrical system design, including chosen protection devices, contributes directly to ensuring power availability. Part of achieving availability is optimizing how devices are coordinated. Devices should be carefully selected to work properly in conjunction with other devices in an electrical system, includingswitches, contactors, circuit breakers, and residual current devices (RCDs)inside an assembly like a switchboard.
In this blog series, we’ll look at the benefits of the coordination ofcircuit breakers.
There are a few types of coordination that can be used in electrical systems, depending on the requirements. In this post, we’ll look at ‘selectivity’, while my next post will discuss ‘cascading’. Both methods are covered by circuit breaker standard IEC 60947-2, Appendix A.
How does selectivity work?
Clearly, for facilities like hospitals, data centers, and airports it’s important to maintain up-time for all critical loads. But for applications like continuous industrial processes or food refrigeration, loss of power can result in costly damages in raw materials, products, and time. When an overload, short circuit, or ground fault occurs on a distribution circuit, energy availability should continue for all other parts of theelectrical installation.
One solution is applying selectivity – sometimes calleddiscrimination– between circuits. How does it work?
If a fault condition occurs on a circuit, the circuit breaker closest to the fault will trip. The circuit breakers upstream from the tripped breaker remain unaffected, so power remains available to all other circuits and loads.
Additionally, it will be much faster for the facility team to locate and fix the source of the fault, as they simply need to identify the circuit where the one breaker has tripped. In contrast, if an upstream breaker had tripped, the fault could have happened any one of a number of downstream distribution circuits, so would take longer to locate.
Multiple levels of selectivity
It’s important that circuit breakers are designed to work together. In commercial buildings, for example, the function and rating of a circuit breaker depend on its position in the electrical architecture: air circuit breakers (ACB) or high rating molded case circuit breakers (MCCB) as incomer, with MCCBs middle level and miniature circuit breakers (MCB) for final circuits.
When considering the multiple levels, the quality of the installation will depend on how the products are designed to be coordinated together to manage the short circuit. This is difficult to assure when different brands of products are mixed together. Choosing products from a single manufacturer that has engineering teams working closely together can help ensure the best coordination.
In the case of a short-circuit at one point of the installation, we should keep in mind that all the circuit-breakers between the power supply (e.g. utility grid) and the fault will see an overcurrent. An ACB or high-rating MCCB main incomer may be delayed to achieve “time-based selectivity”. The challenge here is to define the right setting. For current limiting circuit breakers – this includes the majority of MCCBs on feeders and MCB in final distribution circuits – achieving selectivity is even trickier. It relies on the limitation of the let-through energy of all circuit-breakers involved as well as the non-tripping energy of the upstream circuit breaker. This needs to be considered during the design of breaking characteristics, and the tripping characteristics of the full range.
Thanks to close collaboration between our MCB, MCCB, and ACB design teams, Schneider Electric can offer an incomparable range of selective products, allowing architectures with several intermediate switchboards in order to optimize cable lengths.
Choosing circuit breakers for selectivity
More importantly, how to choose the right combination of circuits breakers and ratings so that selectivity works reliably?
Furthermore, having the correct products, such asMasterPact,ComPact, andActi9series circuit breakers offer a limited number of frame sizes and models to make this process even simpler. These breaker ranges are also designed and tested for selective coordination– from ACB to MCCB to MCB, as well as motor starters and motor circuit breakers – giving you the peace of mind that selectivity will perform, from mains to feeders to final distribution.
Originally posted onSE Blog & Authored byMathieu Guillot
About the author:
"I have been working with Schneider Electric for 17 years. My entire career bears the mark of expertise in the fields of electrical installation protection and power quality. I started by conception of protection algorithms for medium voltage protective relays. In 2001 I have joined Project & Services organization in Paris area as power system senior engineer in charge of selling and completing short-circuit and coordination studies, power quality / EMC analysis, reliability studies in all type of HV or LV power systems (industry building, hospital, data center…). From 2008 to date I am leading electrical distribution expertise & application knowledge within marketing teams for low voltage power circuit breakers. I am fond of everything regarding electrical installations and happy to explore new applications like photovoltaic or wind in order to share this knowledge with marketing and R&D people around me."